Tussit neɣ Inflwenza d aṭṭan amanṭaṭ yessisrig-it-id (yettsebbib-it) uvirus n tussit[1]. Isekna n tussit zemren ad ilin fsus-it neɣ d uzmiren (ujhiden)[2]. Isekna ayyi gan d tusut, azzug n ugerjum, tazzla n yinzaren, takma tamaẓwalt, tawla, Amaẓla d utmelli, deg tuget n tegnatin isekna ayyi d wid id yettneflalin seld n sin n wussan seg tefsert ar uvirus d unekcum-is ar tfekka w ad ṭṭfen azal n 7 n wussan i wakken ad kksen. Maca tusut tezmer ad teṭṭef ugar n 15 n wussan[1]. Ar warrac meẓẓiyen yezmer ad yeglu ula s umuktu d iriran maca isekna ayyi ur ttilin ara ar imeqqranen

Idis (aṭṭan)
H1N1 Influenza Virus Particles (8411599236).jpg
Aṭṭan amanṭaṭ
Sous-classe deinfection virale des voies respiratoires, infections à Orthomyxoviridae, aṭṭan amesgunef, maladie virale Ẓreg
A pour causeOrthomyxoviridae Ẓreg
A pour effetpandémie de grippe, Tasakrart, flambée épidémique Ẓreg
Spécialité médicalemédecine générale, pneumologie, infectiologie, médecine d'urgence Ẓreg
Médicamentperamivir, oseltamivir, zanamivir, Baloxavir Ẓreg
Processus de transmission pathogènetransmission aéroportée, contamination par les sécrétions respiratoires, transmission directe, transmission par surface contaminée Ẓreg
Région anatomiqueAnagraw amesgunef Ẓreg
Caractérisé parcontagiousness Ẓreg
ICD-9-CM487, 487.8 Ẓreg
Identifiant Classification internationale des soins primairesR80 Ẓreg
Identifiant NCI ThesaurusC53482, C53482 Ẓreg
Identifiant Patientplusinfluenza Ẓreg

Timukrisin n tussit gant d: azzug n turin, Azzug abektir n turin d unerni n wuguren idawsanen am uneggaf d yibriren n wul.[2][3]

Isragen (ssebbat)Ẓreg

Llant 3 n telmas n ivirusen n tussit ttaɣent amdan, tilmas-a gant d: Talmest A, Talmest B, Talmest CC.[3]Ivirusen-a d wid yettenfufuden s wezwu d tusut d unezzu.[1] aladɣa mi ara ad ilin seg yistumen gezzilen neɣ meẓẓiyen.[4], Akken yezmer ad yenfufed s tuṭsa (anali) n tiggiwin yummsen s uvirus sin akin ad tili tuṭsa n yimi neɣ n wallen.[2][4]. Amdan i tuɣ tussit yezmer ad yessigem (ad yessenṭeṭ) avirus send d seld n teflalit n Isekna fell-as.[2], Asentem n yigem yezmer ad yili s ukayed n uvirus deg ugerjum, alɣuɣ neɣ inzaren akken illan iberdan d tirrayin tiruradin, maca imdanen id yeffeɣ ukayad-nsen d ibaw zemren ad ilin ddmen igem. Dɣa tella telmest n tsedmirt tanmezrit n Polimiraz (PCR) id yesnaramen (id ikeccfen) ɣef uzeffar aṛibuɣsan n uvirus, dɣa akayad-a igan yakk d usdid.[3]

Taggaẓt d ussujiẒreg

Asired n yifassen yessedras (yessenqas) seg umihi n yigem acku avirus yettmettat mi ara ad yessemres (yessexdem) wemdan aserrad.[1] timelsiwt n unaffar afetkan d ayen igerrzen daɣen.[5], Tuddsa tamadlant n tdawsa tessmagel (tweṣṣa) s wegzay neɣ acraṭ amseggas (n yal aseggas) mgal tussit i wid yettwafesren i yimihiyen meqqren. Tigezt d tin yettilin d tamellilt mgal 3 neɣ 3 n telmas n tussit.[6]

AcraṭẒreg

 
Agzay (acraṭ) mgal tussit

Tuddsa tamadlant n tdawsa d Ammasen i wsenɣed d tesɣilt ɣef waṭṭanen ssmetren (weṣṣan) s wecraṭ mgal tussit i yimdanen yettwafesren i wmihi am warrac meẓẓiyen d yimɣaṛen d yixeddaen deg tɣult n tasnujjya d wid ilan (yesɛan) aṭṭanen imezrayen am uneggaf d wuguren wul. Ma d imdanen imawaṭen izemren yettili-d ucraṭ ɣur-sen d amellil cwiyya deg usedres n yisekna yettemcabin agla n tussit, Dɣa anzaten (ttbut) ttɣananen tadersi deg yisig n tussit ɣer igerdan yugaren sin n iseggasen. Ɣer wid-ak yettnegririfen (iɛetben) seg wecraṭ itekksasen cwiya waṭṭan n wergal aberfaw maca ur yiban ara ma iy tekkes aneggaf.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

Amezruy n tussitẒreg

Deg yal aseggas, tussit tettenfufud deg tamiwin n umadal yakk. Ayen id igellun s 3 ar 5 n imelyan n tegnatin tinamsadin (qessiḥen) d wazal n 200,000 ar 500,000 n tegnatin n tmekkest (lmut).[1], deg tamiwin tigafanin d tinaẓulin ttilin-d isefrurten deg tegrest s talɣa tagejdant ma deg yideggan isbegsanen d tamiwin id yezzin ttilin-d deg yal akud n useggas.[1], Timekkest (lmut) tettili-d gar idrasen n ilemẓiyen ilan (yesɛan) uguren deg tdawsa-nsen d yimɣaren meqqren .[1][3], deg tsut tis 20 lfant-d (ḍrant-d) 3 n yirwasen n tussit: * Tussit Taspenyulit deg useggas n 1918 yegla-d s 50 n tmekkisin, * Tussit n Asya deg useggas n 1957 tegla-d s sin n imelyan n tmekkisin, * Tussit n Hong Kong deg useggas n 1968 tegla-d s umelyun n tmekkisin.[13]. Tuddsa tamadlant n tdawsa telɣet-d s usefruret d unfufed n telmest tamaynut n tussit isem-is A / H1N1 id yeglan s Arwas n tussit A (H1N1) n 2009.[14], Tussit tezmer ad tessemdu w ad taɣ ula deg iɣersiwen am yilfan d iyas d yigṭaṭ.[15]

assegzi n uvidyu

Isekna d yizmalẒreg

 
Isekna n tussit yakk d tawla d tusut[16] d isekna imezdiyen s waṭas[17]

Azal n 33% n yimdanen i tuɣ tussit ur lin ara (ur sɛan aran) sekna.[18]. Isekna n tussit zemren ad ssemtin (ad bdun) s tugnit (taswiɛt kan) seld n yiwen ar sin n wussan seld n yigem. Isekna imenza ttilin d aqiccew n weglim d ufray s usemmiṭ, maca ula d tawla tettili d timezdit deg wakud imizik n yigem s tseddart n teẓɣelt yettilin gar n 38° ar 39°C. Amur ameqran n imuṭan ttawin-d ussan n tudna-nsen deg wusu s usrag n wagazen deg yakk tamiwin n tfekkiwin-nsen aladɣa deg uzagur d iṭarren.[19][20]. Isekna n tussit d wid izemren ad ilin d:

Ar warrac meẓẓiyen, Isekna n tussit ttilin deg unagraw amesgunef am beṛṛiṭ, Agaz n wadis (Isekna ayyi zemren ad ilin d inamsaden ɣer warrac i tuɣ tussit B.[22][23][24] Aserwes (ameyyez) gar n tussit d yidis d win imrayen (iweɛṛen) deg talliyin timezwura n wazzugen-a. Tussit d arway n yisekna n yidis d wazzug n turin asemmaṭ d igazen g tfekka d umaẓla d utmelli.[17][17][23][25][26]

Mya isafaren inemgalen n ivirusen d imellilen deg usuji n tussit ma ttwafken-d zik, ad yili d axatar i tukza (aɛqal) n tignatin deg wakud imizik. Akken i yezmer i tegrawin n tawla d tusut d wazzug n ugerjum neɣ asekfel n yinzaren ad sselhunt seg tseddi n twessna. Snat n tezrawin sseknen-tt-d d akken s isefrurten idiganen n tussit, isig n unfufed n waṭṭan yettugar 70%.[27][28][29] Ikayaden inamalen zeddiɣ (mazal) lehhun, immasen n usenɣed n waṭṭanen (CDC) di Marikan tetteffer agzul amsetrer i yikayaden inamalen n isnuda s unect n CDC, ikayaden n twessna taruradt tla (tesɛa) tanefrayt 50-75% d tulmist 90-95% mi ara ad yettwaserwes s yidles anvirus.[27][30][31]. Deg kra n tikwal, Tussit tezmer ad teglu s waṭṭan anamsad am wazzug n turin anvirus. Akken illan isekna ibanen am wemray n usgunef

Avirus n tussitẒreg

Tilmas n ivirusen n tussitẒreg

 
Taɣessa (tamsukt) n uvirus n tussit tesskanay-d Hemagglutinin (HA) d ipṛutinen n Neuraminidase (NA) deg tiggi n tzelɣiwin. Yettwafser uzeffar aṛibuɣsan anvirus id yessiliɣen ajinum am tkurin tizeggaɣin s agensu (daxel) n tzelɣiwin yettiwṭen ar (RNP)

Avirus n tussit s unect n usismel n ivirusen yettwameggez d avirus n ARN yettmag-d seg 5 n tewsitin n twacult n ivirusen inezɣiwen uzmiren.[32]

Ivirusen-a teqqnen kan ar ivirusen n tussit n yilfan talsant, igan d ivirusen n uzeffar aṛibuɣsan yeṭṭafaren tawacult n Maramixeros yettumeggezen d asrag (ssebba) imezdi i wazzug n unagraw amesgunef ar warrac meẓẓiyen am waṭṭan n taɣiṭṭ, akken i yezmer ad yeglu s waṭṭan yettemcabin i tussit ar imeqqranen.[33][34]

Tettwasumer-d twacult tis 4 n ivirusen n tussit igan d (Avirus n tussit D).[35][36][37][38][39][40][41], Talmest-a tamaynut iga d tussit n tsita yettwasinfen (yettwaɛezlen) i tikkelt tamezwarut deg useggas n 2012

Avirus n tussit AẒreg

Igṭaṭ n waman gan d imsnugaten igamanen i tegrawt meqqren n tussit A, Tikwal ivirusen-a ttenṭaṭen i telmas n iɣersiwen n iden, sin akin yessisrig-d s unfufed d usefruret id igellun s twaɣit i yiwuzaṭ imegruden id t-yessenṭaṭen s iman-is ar wemdan i wakken ad telfu (ad teḍru) tẓidmelt n tussit gar n imdanen. Dɣa ivirusen A i yemrayen (i weɛṛen) yakk gar n 3 n ivirusen n tussit acku ttaken-d Aṭṭanen inamsaden. Yezmer ad yili beṭṭu n ivirusen n tussit A ar waɣanen d inawen yemgaraden s usizder ɣer tririt n tfekkamgalin i yivirusen-a, inawen inmegzayen i yessentamen ar wemdan gant d:[42][43]

Avirus n tussit BẒreg

 
Ismawen n uvirus n tussit (i wvirus n tussit n Fujian)

Avirus n tussit B yettaɣ imdanen kan (maca yezmer daɣen ad yaɣ snat n telmas n iɣersiwen: isifer d unessas), Dɣa tussit B ur telli ara s tuget am tussit A, Talmest-a n tussit yesniffil s yisig n 2 ar 3 n tikkal s ddaw n telmest A, s usrag n tdrwsi ayyi n tuggta tasemgalt tettili-d tseddart n waffal mgal n tussit B deg temẓi, ɣas akken tussit B tesdeṛmis ɣer tfesna anda ur yettili ara waffal amaɣlal mgal-is, isig-a anamum (uḍɛif) i wessnifel asemgal yakk d tegrawt n umesnubget (asekref n tuddit n telmas s usemgal) s wakka ad yettwasegger (ad yettwaḍman) ur ttilin ara irwasen n tussit B.[42][45][46][47][48][49]

Avirus n tussit CẒreg

Tussit C tettaɣ imdanen d yiqjan d yilfan. Aṭṭanen inamsaden gellun-d s tzitmura tidiganin. Maca talmest-a d tin ur nelli ara s tuget yakk yerna tettaɣ kan arrac meẓẓiyen s tefses.[50][51][52][53]

Tuddit d unfufed n uvirusẒreg

Mi ara ad yenzi (yeɛḍes) neɣ yusu wemdan yudnen s tussit, ugar n wezgen n umelyun n tfekkiwin n ivirusen nettgen ar wezwu. Anṭaṭ n uvirus ɣer yimdanen irennu s waṭas deg wezgen n wass ar yiwen n was seld n yigem (akud deg acu yettili deg-s wemdan yessenṭaṭ-it i wayeṭ) ma d isig n wenṭaṭ yeflalin (ɛlayen) i wemdan niden deg taggara n wass wis sin akken i yettaṭṭaf azal n 5 wussan maca yezmer ad yeṭṭef alammi d 9 n wussan

TasensakrartẒreg

Isniflen isemhayenẒreg

 
Ideggan yettufesren i tussit tasemhayt: wamber ar yebrir (azegzaw), wamber ar yebrir (azeggaɣ), s teɣzi n useggas (awṛaɣ).

Tussit tettawaṭ ar waggi-ynes deg tegrest, llant snat n tsemhuyin n tessut yal aseggas acku tagrest tettas-d deg sin n wakuden yemgaraden gar n wezgen agafan n tegnit d wezgen anaẓul, ɣef waya tuddsa tamadlant n tdawsa tettaked isemtar (ttewṣiyat) i snat n tsuddsin yemgaraden n wecraṭ yal aseggas (yiwet deg wezgen agafan tis snat deg wezgen anaẓul).[54]

amezruy n tussitẒreg

Tigmayin (inadiyen)Ẓreg

Ẓeṛ daɣenẒreg

ImnirenẒreg

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  9. . doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000364.pub4. PMID 23450529. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azmez= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. Jefferson T, Rivetti A, Di Pietrantonj C, Demicheli V, Ferroni E. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004879.pub4. PMID 22895945. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. . doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001269.pub5. PMID 24623315. Unknown parameter |aneggar6= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar5= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar3= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azmez= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar4= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar5= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar1= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar1= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar4= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar3= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. . doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005187.pub4. PMID 23881655. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar3= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azmez= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |الأول= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
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