Tasnilest tamatut : Tameẓla gar ileqman

Aucun changement de taille ,  1 n wayyur aya
aucun résumé de modification
 
== Amata γefɣef umeslay d tutlayin  <ref>ARNAUD, Antoine et LANCELOT, 1810, Grammaire générale et raisonnée [Deuxième
 
édition], Bossange et Masson, Paris.
 
=== Ameslay, Tutlayt, Timetti   ===
Iwakken ad negzu amkan n tutlayt d wazal-is deg tudert n umdan, ilaq ad nwali assaγenassaɣen yellan gar tnekta-ya (tutlayt) akked snat n tnektiwin-nniḍen : ameslay d temetti.
 
==== Ameslay ====
Ameslay, yemgarad γefɣef tutlayt. Imusnilsen (Ferdinand de Saussure; Noam Chomsky), ttwalin ameslay am wakken d tazmert tabyulujit i d-yettawi yal amdan deg wallaγwallaɣ-ines mi ara d-ilal. Tazmert-a, terza anagar amdan; ur tt-nettaf ara γurɣur imudduren-nniḍen. TalγiwinTalɣiwin n taywalt ara naf γurɣur kra n yimudduren, am tzizwa neγneɣ ibkan, mgaradent aṭas γefɣef tulmisin n umeslay n umdan. DaγDaɣ, ameslay d tagrumma n yilugan imadwanen s i yezmer umdan ad isayli tutlayin, ama d tin n tyemmat neγneɣ tid-nniḍen.  
 
==== Tutlayt ====
Am wakken i nwala, d tazmert n umeslay (ilugan imadwanen) i d-yettaken tutlayt neγneɣ tutlayin (ilugan ikmamen). Ihi, ameslay d yiwen, yezdi akk imdanen. Ma d tultayin, ugtent, mgaradent akken mgaradent tmettiyin d yigduden i tent-yessawalen deg umaḍal. Tutlayt d allal n taywalt gar yimdanen n yiwet n temγiwanttemɣiwant tamutlayt.  
 
==== Timetti ====
Amdan γasɣas yettawi-d yid-es tazmert n umeslay mi ara d-ilal, ur issawaḍ ara ad issayli tutlayt ma ur d-yekkir ara gar yimdanen. Γefɣef wakka ur tezmir ad tili tutlayt war ma tella tmetti. Am wakken daγdaɣ tudert tinmettit teqqen γerɣer tutlayt acku s tutlayt i ttmsefhamen medden; s yess i dssenfalayen assaγenassaɣen yettilin gar-assen. Yal agdud, meẓẓi neγneɣ meqqer, ila tutlayt i yessemras d allal n taywalt.  
 
==== Tutlayin deg umaḍal/tutlayin n umaḍal ====
Ugten tutlayin deg umaḍal akken ugten yigduden d temγiwanintemɣiwanin i tent-yessawalen. Γasɣas azalnsent yiwen, ur telli tin i d-yekkan nnig tayeḍ, tutlayin-a mgaradent deg waṭas n tulmisin : amḍan n yimsiwlen, asermres d twuriwin, aẓayer, atg.
 
===== Amḍan n tutlayin deg umaḍal =====
Imusnilsen mgaraden kra deg wayen yerzan amḍan i d-ttaken γefɣef tutlayin yellan deg umaḍal. Llan gar-asen wid i d-yefkan amḍan n 5.000 n tutlayin ; wiyaḍ ssulin-t armi 7.000. Tamgardaya tekka-d seg wugur i d-nettmagar mi ara nebγunebɣu ad neg tilisa gar tutlayin neγneɣ gar tantaliwin. Deg wanida kra n yimusnilsen ttwalin snat neγneɣ krad n tantaliwin icudden γerɣer yiwet n tutlayt, wiyaḍ zemren ad walin snat neγneɣ krad n tutlayin yemgaraden.
 
===== Amḍan n yimsiwlen =====
Nezmer ad nebḍu tutlayin n umaḍal almend n umḍan n yimsiwlen-nsent. Llant tid i ssawalen nnig n mya n yimelyan n yimdanen : tamandarint, taglizit, taspenyulit, tahendit, atg. Akken llant tid i ssawalen kra n 1000 neγneɣ ddaw n 1000 (kra seg tutlayin n Wamaẓun d Tefriqt). Gar sin n yixfawen-a, ad naf tutlayin-nniḍen : talmanit (95.000.000), taṭelyanit (80. 000.000), takatalunit (10. 000. 000), tabaskit (800.000), atg. Ma d tutlayin ur nli wid i tent-yessawalen, ttusemmant d tutlayin yemmuten.
 
===== Tutlayin yuran/tutlayin timawin =====
Deg tadra-nsent, tutlayin akk d timawin. Almend n yinmezrayen, tira d tamaynut deg umezruy n talsa; tennulfa-d i tikkelt tamezwarut deg Sumer (Asamer Alelmmas) azal n 5.000 n yiseggasen aya. Γasɣas akken tira tettak afud i tutlayt, d allal n tneflit n yidles d tγermatɣerma, drus n yiɣerfan i tt-yessemrasen. DγaDɣa amur ameqqran n tutlayin qqiment ar assa d timawin. Gar yigduden yessemrasen tira, llan wid i tt-isekcmen deg yal taγulttaɣult (tasekla, tasreḍt, tussna, taywalt, atg.). Γurɣur wiyaḍ, ad tt-naf anagar deg kra n taγulintaɣulin kan.  
 
 
17 665

modifications