Ldi umuɣ agejdan


Deg tmuɣli n Montesqiueu, isaḍufen neɣ leqwanen d nutni i yesselḥawen tilufa gar yemdanen, zgan-d sufella n kra yellan. I wakken ad nefhem isaḍufen i d-sersen yemdanen, ilaq ad nerzu ɣer teɣdemt axaṭer dinna i yettbedday lḥedd.

Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Montesquieu
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lqaḍi


seat 2 of the Académie française Suqel

Tameddurt
Isem-is ummid Charles-Louis de Secondat
Talalit Château de la Brède Suqel, Yennayer 18, 1689
Taɣlent Fransa
Tutlayt tayemmat Tafransist
Timekkest Paris, Fuṛaṛ 10, 1755
Ideg n uẓekka Saint-Sulpice Suqel
Tawacult
Tissulya akked Jeanne de Lartigue Suqel
Arraw-is
Tiɣri
Alma mater College of Jukilop​ Suqel
Tutlayin Tafransist
Amahil
Amahil afelsuf, amaru, novelist Suqel, sociologist Suqel, poet lawyer Suqel, lawyer Suqel, lqaḍi, Encyclopédistes Suqel, historian Suqel akked asertay
Important works The Spirit of the Laws Suqel
Prizes
Membership Académie française Suqel
Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences Suqel
Royal Society Suqel
Académie de Stanislas Suqel
Artistic movement epistolary novel Suqel
essay Suqel
Taflest
Asɣan Catholicism Suqel
Tamuɣli n Montesquieu ɣef udabu

Isaḍufen n yemdanen mgaraden ɣef wid n ugama, ur d-ttnulfan kan akka. Leqwanen i d-sbedden yemdanen, ɣas ur ttemcabin, resen ɣef yiwen n llsas. Wa icudd ɣer gma-s. Asaḍuf yettḍebbir, d netta i d assaɣ gar wid yesmendiwen (wid d-yesnulfayen lqanun) d yineḥkamen. Asaḍuf d aseɣwen i d-yefrurin seg temsal d wamek d-ḍrant, am win yeqqnen Rebbi d yemdanen neɣ win n yemdanen deg aygar-nsen.

Montesqiueu yettwali isaḍufen s wudem n tussna; ur ten-yettmuqul ara mfaraqen, yeqqar iseɣwan i ten-icudden wa ɣer wa. Yettaddam-d lmul ussnan, ad t-yessers syinnakin ɣef yemdanen. Iseɣwan yakk yellan ger leqwanen d nutni i d iman, i d rruḥ n yisaḍufen. Asaḍuf i ten-id-jemmlen yakk d ṣṣwab n wemdan, imi d netta i yettḍebbiren ɣef yemdanen yakk n lqaɛa.

S ttexmam-a, Motesqiueu yeɛreḍ ad d-yesbeggen ṣwab n tmettiyin n medden d yisaḍufen. Timsal n tsertit d taluft n umusnaw; tussna n tsertit ur yezmir yiwen ad tt-iɣer alma yekkes-as lhiba i tidet n ddin.

Asenqed n yinhilen (iduba)

Montesqiueu ur yebni ara ttexmam-is s tsertiyin tiqdimin, dacu kan yugem-d s waṭas seg tfelsafit tasertant n zik imi yeɣra 03 n leṣnaf imeqranen n udabu :

   Adabu agdudan :

Deg udabu-a, d agdud neɣ cwiṭ deg-s i iḥekkmen. Deg-s, ad naf sin n leṣnaf: arisṭukraṭ ( adabu n kra) d tugdut (adabu n yakk);

Deg tegduda tagdudant, leḥkem d ayla n wegdud, d acu kan ikennu deg taggara i leqwanen i d-sersen iɛeggalen d-yesbedd. Ɣer Montesquieu yella wemgirred gar tugdut tusridt d tin n yiɛeggalen. Netta yettwali agdud yessefk-as ad iḍebber ɣef kra i yellan gar ifassen-is, ayen i d-yegran d tamsalt n yineɣlafen-is. Tigejdit iɣef yebna udabu-a d ṣwab, lmeɛna-s d sivizm i yettarran amdan yessizwir nnfeɛ n medden yakk d tmurt ɣef nnfeɛ-is netta. Tayri n sɛaya d ayen ur nettumekken deg udabu yecban wa imi d tezdeg i t-yesseddawen. Dacu kan, adabu-a ur yezmir ad d-yili ala deg tmura timecṭuḥin.

Deg tegduda tarisṭukraṭ, anager drus i yeṭṭfen leḥkem. Ṣwab, ɣas d tigejdit daɣen deg ṣenf udabu-a, ur yeǧhid ara imi deg drus n tlufa kan i ikennu i lebɣi n wegdud.

   Adabu ageldan :

Yiwen i yettrayin, i ilan leḥkem, d netta kan i yesselḥawen tilufa s lemqadra n leqwanen ibedden. Agellid ur yezmir ara ad yexdem ayen akk i yebɣa, imi tazmert-is tesɛa tilisa. Tilist-is teqqen ɣer tezmert yergazen yesɛan ccan deg tgelda-s, am: Lqaḍi, At ddin d yimeqqranen nniḍen. Tigejdit n udabu-a d iseɣ d wayen i iḥemmlen lɣaci n tgelda. Ageldun ur yezmir ad yessuter deg yemdanen ad xedmen ayen iwumi ur zmiren i wakken ur itekkes ara fell-asen sser.

   Adabu n udebbuz :

Yiwen i yettrayin, meɛna mebla tilisa. Yettḍebbir kan akken yebɣa, akken s-d-ddnen uqerruy-is d wul-is. Deg udabu-a, win iḥekmen ur yesɛi d acu ara t-id-iḥebsen neɣ ad s-iḥettmen xerṣum d ayen i iṛeggem neɣ yewɛed. Yezmer ad yefk yak tazmert-is i yineɣlafen-is. Tigejdit n ṣṣenf udabu-a d tegdi, d lxuf.

Yal ṣṣenf n udabu yebna ɣef wedɣaɣ n lmul-tigejdit : d ayen i yessezdayen isaḍufen n kra n udabu. Tijɛelt n udabu tbeddu deg tazwara s tmesɣiwt n tgejdit iɣef yuli udabu-a (amedya : deg tegduda tagdudant, imdanen yeffeɣ-asen ṣwab)

Montesquieu yezzem nezzeh adabu n udebbuz, yewṣef-it am wexxam mebla tiɛerstin. Adabu-a ur yesɛi ara taɣessa tasertant-taɣademt (la lqanun, la aseɣwen ger uneḥkam d yisaḍufen, imi imdanen knan kan ar nnefḥa n uqerruy i ten-iḥekmen). I t-yeččuren d tasusmi kan d tigugemt ideg yeṭṭenṭun lebɣi n yimḍebber, ulac yakk deg-s ayen iwumi qqaren taɣessa timettit. Deg udabu n udebbuz, wid yellan yakk swadda kifkif-iten deg wazal. ɣer Montesqiueu, d aseɛdel ger yemdanen i yesseččayen adabu-a. Acku mi ara ɛedlen yakk yemdanen, tettruḥu-asen tazmert i wakken ad qablen win yuɣalen d Rebbi fell-asen.

Dɣa seddaw n Udabu Aqdim, igelliden ttaɛraḍen ad d-sersen leqwanen wer ma fkan azal i tseddarin n yemdanen (tisegluyin), aya i wakken ad sefḍen icelqem yellan gar medden, ɣilen d ayen fessusen. Montesqiueu iwala-d aseɛdel-a ger medden yettawi ɣer leḥkem udebbuz.

Tifrat ɣer-s d aleggen n lǧehd i yesɛan yemdanen: yessefk lmizan ara yesserkden timetti d wefraq n tzemmar n ddula.

Afraq n tzemmar

Ɣer Montesqiueu, tilelli mačči d timunnent, iswi mačči d tazmert ad yexdem yiwen akken i s-yehwa. Tilelli i nettnadi d tin ara yefken tazmert i wemdan ad yexdem ayen akk i s-yessuref lqanun. D lqanun ihi i d-yessrusun tilisa n tlelli.

Aserrus n yisaḍufen iṛessan ur yettaǧǧa ara adabu i yebnan ɣef tgejdit n tegdi ad d-ilal. Win yettḍebbiren ilaq ad yeknu i yisaḍufen.

Montesqiueu yettwali deg wefraq n tzemmar n ddula yesnernay deg tlelli n yemdanen. S tmuɣli-a, ad naf belli llan sin n leṣnaf n yiduba: adabu ireẓnen (am tugdut d trisṭukraṭit) d win ur nerẓin ara. Anager adabu ireẓnen i izemren ad yeḍmen tilelli n wemdan. Ala s tmendawt iweznen d yisaḍufen i iḍemmnen laman i terwiḥin n yemdanen i s-izemren ad d-ḥellin tilelli-nsen. Ɣer Montsequieu, ilaq tifin n ttawil ara igen tilisa i tezmert n ddula.

Dɣa ɣef wannect-a i d-yettmeslay ɣef wefraq n tzemmar i d-yebder uqbel-is yakan Locke. Aya yekkat i wakken ur tettemttuttul ara tezmert ger ifassen n yiwen n wemdan kan. “Tazmert tḥebbes-d tazmert nniḍen”. Dacu kan, tezmer tmurt ad t-tfeṣṣel aya akken s-yehwa, tezmer ad tesdukkel ger snat n tzemmar deg umedya, neɣ ad tger azeṭṭa ger tzemmar.

Montesquieu yettwali deg Yiman n yisaḍufen 03 tɣawsiwin i yessefken i wefraq n tzemmar. Yeddem-d amedya n Tmendawt taglizit:

   Aberlaman: tazmert n usnagal, tira d useɣti n yisaḍufen.
   Aselway n Unabaḍ: ixeddem s yisaḍufen i d-tessers tezmert tasnagalt. Yecqa-d d tlufa n wezref n yemdanen (tadiplumasit)
   Taɣdemt: tettḥasab, tḥekkem, tferru iɣeblan d yimenɣiwen ger yemdanen. Telha-d d tlufa yeɛnan azref aɣarim.

Wid d-yusan deg leqrun wis-19 d 20 (Durgit, Carré de Malberg, ..) fehmen s leɣlaḍ afraq n tzemmar i d-yemla Montesquieu. Ɣilen afraq-a n tzemmar yessefk ad yili d ugzim, netta dɣa aya d awezɣi ad d-yili deg tilawt, axaṭer aya ad d-yeglu s uẓerreb, yal tazmert deg tama-s. Ulamek yal tama n ddula ad tesɛu tazmert-is i yiman-is, neɣ ad tili d tilellit s wudem igezmen (yiwet ur tettɛawan tayeḍnin). Aẓerreb-a yeslalay-d yiwen udabu d aɛeẓẓug , d tisselwit d tejmaɛt-is kan i yettrayin (ala adebbuz i izemren ad d-yessufɣen tamurt seg tnexxart-a) neɣ adabu ara yesselḥaw wegraw kan (tisselwit d lexyal ubeɛli kan).

Ur yessefk ara ihi usemnenni n snat n tzemmar ger ifassen n yiwen n wemdan. Asemnenni yezmer ad d-yawi dder, aladɣa mi ara yiwen ad yejmeɛ 03 n lxedmat ɣef tikelt. Meɛna, yelha mi ara yiwen ad d-yeṭṭef cwiṭ deg-sent: amedya, azref n Veto. Aya yessuruf i yal tazmert ad teḥbes tayeḍnin, ad teslek seg lbaṭel-is.


    Afran n udabu
Deg tmuɣli n Montesquieu, ulamek yakk ad d-tbedd tugdut tusridt deg tmettiyin-nneɣ tatrarin seddaw n Unabaḍ ageldan, acku wessiɛit nezzeh. Tagduda daɣen ulamek ad d-tili deg ṣṣenf n tmettiyin-a. Yerna, tigejdit iɣef tebna tugdut d ṣṣwab; ṣṣwab deg tmetti tartart ulac-it. Yessefk ihi ad yesseḥseb yiwen i tudert tajdiṭ d-wwin yemdanen n tura ( idrimen rran-ten yal yiwen yettxemmim i yiman-is, awi-d kan ad d-ddren wer ma cqan-d ma telha tudert-nsen neɣ xaṭi). Lmeɛna n zik truḥ, yeǧǧa-tt zman.

S tiṭ n wemdan atrar, Montesquieu yettwali tilelli ur d-tettas ara s uttekki deg udabu d tsertit. Amdan atrar yettwali tilelli mi ara yerwel seg tsertit d mi ara yeɛzel iman-is deg lehmum n wexxam-is.

Deg udabu n udebbuz, imdanen kennun imir-nni. Deg tgelda, kennun s ṭṭul. Tegdi tettili-d deg udabu ideg ur d-tettbin ansi ara d-tas tiyita. Yessefk ihi usbeddi n leqwanen iṣeḥḥan ara isefḍen tegdi, ad d-yawin talwit.

Udem n tsertit yettban-d amek ttqadaren medden isaḍufen ibedden. Ɣer Montesqiueu, ur nkennu ara i lqanun, meɛna nxeddem ayen yessuruf lqanun. Afraq ger tzemmar yezmer ad d-yawi tadukli, i waken wa ur yettali ɣef wa. Deg taggara, lqanun yella-d i waken ad yesḥirbeb amdan, ad t-yesserked.

Ma ɣef yedrimen, Montesquieu yettwali belli d ttawil yelhan i userked d useggem n lemxalṭat ger yemdanen, yettarra-ten wa yettnadi ɣef wayeḍ. S tmuɣli-a, Montesqiueu yesnulfa-d ajdid deg tussna tasertit, imi yessuẓa ar sdat “lmeɛna”.


  Smaɛil Abid