Ldi umuɣ agejdan

Singapur, ay yellan d tamurt tamecṭuḥt ay d-yuzgan di Asya n wenẓul agmuḍan (sud-est), d tamurt i deg ttidiren waṭas n yegduden, u ttmeslayen deg-s aṭas n tutlayin. Anabaḍ (gouvernement) n tmurt-agi yesbedd-d tasertit (politique) i yes ara yerr taglizit d tutlayt i yes tteddu tmurt, am wakken ara tttwaḥerzent tutlayin nniḍen, tid umi semman n "yegduden", akken yis-sent ara lemden yelmeẓyen idelsan d wansayen-nsen. D acu kan, tagnit deg wennar tewɛer' ugar n wakken i tt-yettmuqul unabaḍ. Yuɣ lḥal, xas anabaḍ asingapuri iqeddec ɣef wamek ara yeḥrez tutlayin n yegduden-is, maca maci merr'a tutlayin ay ssawalen di Singapur ttwaḥerzent, yernu kra seg Yisingapuriyen ttawḍen bitt alamma sr'uḥen tutlayt d yedles-nsen ɣef idra n tsertit-agi.

Singapur
Flag of Singapore.svg Coat of arms of Singapore.svg
Administration
Government parliamentary republic Suqel
Head of state Halimah Yacob Suqel
Tamaneɣt Singapur
Tutlayin tunṣibin Taglizit, Tamalayt, Tamandarint akked Tamil Suqel
Tajyugrafit
Singapore on the globe (Southeast Asia centered).svg
Tajumma 719.1 km²
Borders with Malizya, Indunisya akked United States of Indonesia Suqel
Tadimugrafit
Imezdaɣ 5,888,926 imezdaɣ. (Yulyu 2017)
Density 8,189.3 imezdaɣ/km²
Isallen nniḍen
Time Zone UTC+08:00 Suqel akked Singapore Standard Time Suqel
Internet TLD .sg Suqel
Calling code +65
Currency Singapore dollar Suqel


Singapur

Yuɣ lḥal, di tmurt am Singapur, i deg ṭṭuqqten yegduden, adennit (labudd) ad tili tutlayt, xas d taberr'anit, ara fehhmen merr'a yegduden-is yernu yis-s ay tez! m er ad d-tili teywalt (communication) wagar-asen. D acu kan, si tama nniḍen, tasertit n Singapur akken ad teḥrez tutlayin n yegduden-is ur telli d tin iɛedlen ger n tutlayin merr'a n tmurt-a. Di lweqt i deg Icinwaten a xeddmen ayen umi zemren akken ula d nitni ad sɛun tutlayt-nsen teǧhed di tmurt-a (xas ma yella atni a ttsemmiḥen di tentalyin-nsen tineṣliyin), igduden nniḍen n Singapur, i sen-d-yeqqimen kan ad qeblen tasertit-agi n unabaḍ ara iteddun akken ad temḥu aṭas n tutlayin si tmurt-a. Amagrad-agi yettqeddimaɣ-d amek ay llant tutlayin di tmurt n Singapur, amek ara ixeddem unabaḍ akken ad yessemsawi lumur di tmurt i deg ṭṭuqtent tutlayin am ta, d wamek ara yekkat akken ad ilin Yisingapuriyen d wid ara yissinen tutlayin i yes ara nefɛen tamurt-nsen. D acu kan, si tama nniḍen, nezmer diɣ ad naf deg-s tagnit iṣeɛben i deg ttidirent tutlayin timecṭaḥ sdat n tutlayin "umi meqqer ccan", di tmurt-a, i deg taglizit d nettat ay d tutlayt "tagraɣlant" yekksen akk cciɛa i tiyaḍ, ma d Tacinwat d nettat diɣ ay d tutlayt n tuget deg yimezdaɣen n tmurt. Afud igerrzen

Amezruy n SingapurẒreg

Xas ma yella amezruy n Singapur d aqdim aṭas, ayen yesɛan azal meqqren akk deg-s netta d asmi ay yewweḍ ɣur-s Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles deg waggur n Yennayer n 1819. Mi akken ay yewweḍ Raffles ɣer tegzirt-agi, yufa-n deg-s yiwet n taddart tamecṭuḥt n 150 n yimezdaɣen dɣa yuɣ tigizrt-agi ɣef yiwen n ukerwa n yilel (maître de la mer) isem-is Abdul Rahman yernu yerra-tt d ayla n Tkebbanit Tabriṭanit n Lhend Tagmuḍant (Tacerqit). Dindin kan tuɣal Singapur d asagen (port) irebḥen. Di 1826, tuɣal Singapur d aḥric si Thersin n Yekriẓen (Colonies des Détroits), am nettat am Penang d Malacca [di Malizya]. Ma di 1867, tuɣal Singapur, akk d Thersin-nni n Yekriẓen d Tahrest seg Uqacuc Abriṭani.

Iminigen n Ccinwa, n Lhend, n Malizya akk d tegzirin n Indunisya llan-d si ger n yimezwura ay d-yewwḍen ɣer Singapur, akken kan d-sbedden asagen-ines. Leḥkem abriṭani akk d tewwura yeldin ɣef tnezzawt (commerce) di Singapur d ayen ay yeǧǧan aṭas n medden ad d-inigen ɣur-s si Ccinwa. Aṭas seg Yicinwaten-nni ay d-yewwḍen ɣer din d wid yellan ttwalasen ṭṭlaba dɣa llan ssexdamen-ten di tmurt-a. Ma d iminigen Ihendiyen, bdan ttasen-d ɣer din seg wasmi ay d-yewwi Raffles kra seg-sen deg yiserdasen-is. Imi ay zemren ad xedmen di Singapur di inawaren (fonctionnaires) n unabaḍ, d imestekniyen (techniciens), d iselmaden neɣ d imzenza (commerçants), aṭas n Yihendiyen ay d-yinigen ɣer din si Penang, Lhend akk d Sri Lanka. Di 1823, tuɣal Singapur d amḍiq i ɣer d-ttawin imeḥbas, dɣa uɣalen ttusexdamen yimeḥbas ihendiyen di lebni n yizudaɣ (bɛtiments), n yiberdan akk d tqenṭyar.

Uqbel n 1860, imezdaɣen n Singapur llan ḥessben-ten s uqerru, yernu d tamsulta (police) ay d-ilehhun d wanect-a. Di 1860, yettwaxdem wuddun (recensement) amenṣab amenzu, yernu ufan-d d akken llan imir-n 80.792 n yemdanen di tmurt-a. Zik-nni, ala kan d Imaliziyen ay yellan zedɣen di Singapur, d acu kan, ur ɛeṭṭlen ara uɣalen Yicinwaten d nitni ay yeṭṭuqqten dinna.

Di 1824, llan 10.683 n yimezdaɣen di Singapur, gar-asen 60 % d Imaliziyen, 31 % d Icinwaten akk d 7 % d Ihendiyen. Ma di 1830, uɣalen Yicinwaten d nitni ay yeṭṭuqqten akk ger n yimezdaɣen n tmurt-a, yernu mazal-iten ara ass-a d nitni ay tigti (majorité). Di 1867, wwḍen Yicinwaten ɣer 65 % (55.000) seg yimezdaɣen n Singapur, yernu anect ay yellan a d-yettaweḍ d iminigen icinwaten yettnadin leqdic yella yettbeddil seg useggas ɣer wayeḍ. ɣef umedya, di 1880, wwḍen-d 50.000 n yiminigen si Ccinwa, di lweqt i deg di 1912, wwḍen-d 250.000. Ihokkienen (Hokkien), Iteochewen (Teochew), Ikanṭuniyen akk d Yihakkaten si trebbaɛ timeqqranin akk ay yellan ttawḍent-d si Ccinwa. Seg wasmi ay d-yebda yinig ɣer Singapur, d Ihokkienen akk d Yiteochewen ay yeṭṭfen tanezzawt (commerce), ma d Ikanṭuniyen qeddcen s umata di tfellaḥt, maca kra deg-sen qeddcen diɣ di yineḍ (artisanat), bennun ixxamen n wesɣar, ttxiḍin neɣ qeddcen d iḥeddaden.

Tamharsa* TabriṭanitẒreg

(*colonialisme)

D asnulfu n yiɣerruba ay iteddun s yiraggen akk d tullya n terga n Suez di 1869 ay yeǧǧan tadamsa n Sigapur ad tennerni. Tuɣal Asya n Wenẓul agmuḍan (sud-est) d tama yettwassnen s ussuffeɣ (exportation) n kawaču akk d uhellun (étain), yernu tuɣal Singapur d yiwen seg yisugan imeqqranen akk deg wemḍal. Di 1921, bnan Yebriṭaniyen di tmurt-a yiwen n wabuḍ awlal (base navale) meqqren, d win ay ṭṭfen Yijapuniyen deg Wemgaru Amaḍlan (Guerre mondiale) wis sin asmi ay ttf'en Singapur si Fur'ar' n 1942 alamma d Ctember' n 1945.

Di 1946, tuɣal Singapur d tahrest i yiman-is di Tqacuct Tabriṭanit, asmi ay ttwakksent Thersin n Yekriẓen. Di 1959, tettunefk-as tfulmant (autonomie) i Singapur xas ma yella Briṭanya tella mazal-itt d nettat ay d-yelhan d laman akk d lumur' n berr'a n tmurt-a. Ma di 1963, tekcem Singapur ɣer Tfidir'alit n Malizya, am nettat am tmiwa n Malaya, Sabah d Sarawak. D acu kan, di ɣect n 1965, temsebḍa-d Singapur ɣef Malizya yernu tuɣal d tigduda timziregt (indépendante) i yiman-is. Xas ma yella ass n uzarug n Singapur d ass n 9 ɣect 1965, kemmlen yiserdasen Ibriṭaniyen ttilin dinna alammi d taggara n 1971.