Asif n igenwan

D amazellaw agriwel.

Aɣaras n walim neɣ Asif n igenwan (s Tutlayt tamaceɣt: ⵎⵂⵍⵍⴰⵡ) d amazellaw agriwel iteṭṭafar tfukt d tegnit d yimtiwgen niden n wudus anafuk. Amazellaw-a yegber seg imelyaṛen n yitran (gar n 200 ɣer 400 n imelyaṛen n yitran) akken i ttenfufuden deg-s isigniwen d icafcalen, d imeqqranen s waṭas yakk d igedṛuṛen d igazen deg yal ijifeṛ seg ijufaṛ-is. Deg wuṭan imsullsen yesrawen (iṣfan) yettbin-d wasif n igenwan (aɣaras n walim) am akken d tadla n walim hrawen seg tafat n yitran-is, akken i d-ttmagen inkaren deg tadla-nni s usrag n tilin n isigniwen n ugedṛur d igazen iteffren tafat i d-ittaken seg yitran yellan deffir-nsen. [1] Talɣa n wasif n tegnawin d aglayan, Akdu-ines yettawaṭ seg 100.000 ɣer 180.000 n yifawatayen ma d tuzert-is azal n 1000 n ifawatayen s wakka ad tili d tagra tusdidt s waṭas. Tagnit tezga-d zdat n yiri n umazellaw-a anda itezzi wudus anafuk ɣef wammas n umazellaw, dɣa tafukt taggug s wazal n 27,000 n ifawatayen ɣef wammas n umazellaw.
Ma iwula kra n wemdan ɣer igenni deg yiṭ ad iẓer amur seg umazellaw n wasif n igenwan amzun d tadla n yitran, anda imezdaɣ n wezgen agafan n tiṭṭ n tfukt ẓerrent-id ama deg unebdu neɣ deg umwan neɣ deg tegrest, Ixef n aseflalay d tmeẓriwt tacraraqt yakk i umazellaw-a yettili-d deg taggara n unebdu d tazwara n umwan acku deg wakuden-a n useggas inezzeg (wasif n igenwan) seg tezdemt n tmesɣimt (Cassiopeia) alamma d sifus (Cepheus) deg ugafa seg wezgen asemran n igenni yakk seg tegrawt n yitran yettwassnen s ukerdis n uwilen, sin akin ad yerdeb seg yigli ɣer tgenzi yakk d tɣirdemt. Isigniwen n tallunt teffren gar n ukerdis n uwilen d tgenzi yiwet n tjumma talemmast hrawen seg uɣaras n walim ayen i d-ittaǧǧan ittbin-d yegzen ɣer sin n wamuren, ma deg zdat n tgenzi d tɣirdemt yettili uɣaras n walim d aseflalay s waṭas acku d tanila-nni i d-immalen ammas n umazellaw.

Asif n igenwan iga d aseflalay deg kra n tamiwin ugar n tamiwin niden. Anda tama i d-izzin i waẓiẓ wa iggadan (Cygnus) yettfejjij s waṭas, maca amur yehrawen s waṭas yerna iseflellayen s waṭas yezga-d deg unẓul ɣef yimeẓli yerna yezmer wemdan ad tiẓer deg tallunt tagafant deg tmeddiyin n unebdu maca timeẓriwt tettili tefrar ugar deg tamiwin i d-izgan ɣer unẓul n usebges

Anulfu n wasif n igenwanẒreg

Imesnullanen settgen (ttaken lewhi) d akken asif n igenwan yennelfa-d send n wazal n 12-14 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen, akken ittɣilen d akken amazellaw-a d win meẓẓiyen deg waddar s wassaɣ ɣer imazellawen niden yellan deg usedday, Aguccel n waddar-is yella-d s usemres n tesnemdalɣisant.
Deg useggas n 2007 yettwasteg waddar n yiwen n yitri isem-is NGC 3199 s wazal n 13,7 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen, itri ayi izga-d deg wezɣar (beṛṛa) n umazellaw, yaggug ɣef tegnit s 13.2 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen, akken i yettumeggez d tafekka tagennawt tamzikant (taqburt) imur-nni anda i d-issers tilisa tiddayin i waddar n wasif n igenwan.[2] yella-d uselken seg ustag-a s waktaylal n UV-Visual Echelle n umseddas ameqqran.[2] Astag n waddar n yitran i d-izgan deg tagra tamazallawt tusdidt yezmer ad yili s tarrayt yettemcabin i HE 1523-0901. Igemmuden n wakaten llan deg tlisa n 8.8 ± 1.7 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen yezrin, anecta yessumur-d d akken kra n wenkar addar-is 5 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen yella dinna gar n tallit n yisni d tagra tusdidt.[3]

isegra n uɣaras n walimẒreg

 
iɣallen n umazellaw d wadeg n tfukt, Tinliwin yemgaraden yeddan seg wadeg n tfukt mmalent-d tigrawin titrawin. Akken i d-temmal talɣa-nni hiwet n tama ur ttwaẓran ara deg-s yitran s usrag n tneẓẓi n igedṛuren deg wammas n umazellaw.
 
Talɣa n yiɣil n umanar s unect n umagrad ussnan n kra n imusnawen yettwafsaren deg: "Spiral Structure in the Outer Galactic Disk. I. The Third Galactic Quadrant". The Astrophysical Journal. 672 (2): 930–939. 2008. doi:10.1086/524003. Text "author" ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
 
Tamudemt n umazellaw agriwel degs tagra, d nnig-s yakk s ddaw-as yella yisni igebren seg timsegrawin titrawin yettwazuzzren.

Aɣaras n walim yettumeggez d yisen seg imazellawen igriwlen imeqqranen. Ttezzi ɣef yiman-is yiwet n tuzzya yal 250 n imelyan n iseggasen, akken i tezzin degs yitran-is s urured yemgaraden anda itran yellan deg wammas-is i tezzin s urured d tazzla wala itran illan deg ijufaṛ-is akken daɣen i yella wemgarad deg rdusi n teldayt seg wadeg ɣer wayeṭ deg umazellaw s usrag n tmerniwt n tneẓẓi n yitran deg kra n tamiwin, anda ixeddmen isemda-nni deg tguri n yiɣallen igriwlen i umazellaw. Udus anafuk yezga-d deg yiwen seg yiɣalen-nni yettusemman iɣil n umanar i d-izgan deg wazal n sin n yikṛaden (⅔) n uzen-kdu n umazellaw. Akken iy gber umazellaw n uɣaras n walim seg waṭas n yiɣallen igriwlen niden i d-issentayen seg umazellaw sin akin ad negzen ɣer uzɣar (beṛṛa). Gar n yiɣallen yella yiɣil n wemẓiw (Perseue arm) igan d iɣil amaddas fellaɣ deg tama n ijifeṛ n umazellaw, yakk d Iɣil n imeẓli (Sagittarius arm) yudsen fellaɣ seg tama n wammas n umazellaw. Aɣaras n walim yegber daɣen seg waṭas n yiɣallen niden i d-izgan deg tagra n umazellaw, dɣa ttwasemman s yirem n iɣallen acku yal yiwen deg-sen yettak taɣara s tezdemt yettfeǧǧijen s waṭas deg-s. Amedya, iɣil n wemẓiw yettak taɣara s tezdemt n wemẓiw, ma d iɣil n imeẓli yettak taɣara s tezdemt n imeẓli, akken daɣen i yella yiɣil n umanar igrbren tazdemt n umanar deg wanda yella yiwen seg yisigniwen yettwassnen yakk, isem-is asignew n umanar.

'Tamuski n umazellaw tebṭa ɣef 3 n yismilen igejdanen:

  • Aweggir amazallaw: tga d tuffet azun-mezzay yettak-d tafat, yettili deg wammas n umazellaw. Akaten n mraw n iseggasen-a yezrin sseknen-d d tilin n wemruj aberkan d acafcal deg wammas n umazellaw, takura-ines tla (tesɛa) azal n sin n imelyan n tkura tanafukt. Tehri-ines trennu s tmerniwt n waddar n umazellaw akken yella deg uweggir-a amsegraw meqqren s waṭas n yitran d igedṛuren inamdalen. Timeẓriwt n uweggir yuffen n umazellaw d win ifraren deg yiṭ acku tla asefliley ussis ɣas akken timeẓriwt n tfawtin-is tigensawin temray (tewɛer) s usrag tuget n igedṛuren iteffren tafat.
  • Iɣallen: d ayen i d-itezzin i yiweggiren imazallawen igriwlen, gan d icafcalen, tezzin ɣef wammas n umazellaw. Am iɣil n umanar yaggugen s wazal n 26,000 n yifawatayen seg wammas n umazellaw. Imusnawen ssetgen-d d akken amdan n yitran yellan deg yiɣil-a yessawaṭ ɣer 200,000 n yitran, gar-asen [[tafukt]. Akken i d-ssetgen akdu n umazellaw s wazal n 110,000 n ifawatayen, dɣa tafukt tettili deg wuggug n 30,000 n ifawatayen ɣef wammas n umazellaw deg yiɣil n umanar. Teɣzi n yiɣil n umanar n umanar tettawaṭ ɣer 6,500 n ifawatayen ma d tuzert-is azal n 1000 n ifawatayen
  • Izɣuɣ: d tamrest tamezzayt i d-izzin ɣef ugaraw n tegra tamazallawt alamma d istumen yaggugen, Akdu-ines yettawaṭ alamma d 150,000 n ifawatayen, tegber seg igazen yemgaraden d isignewen inamdalen akken i tegber seg timsegrawin titrawin yettwazuzren deg yal adeg ama s ddaw neɣ sufell n tegra. Timsegrawin-nni tezzint ɣef wammas n umazellaw s usrag n tilin wemruj aberkan deg wammas n umazellaw

Talɣa tamatutẒreg

 
Tugna n umazellaw n uɣaras n walim s izenzaren iderzeggaɣen i d-ittwaṭṭfen s tanawt COBE
 
Alegdis azenzaɣ n uɣaris n walim
 
Aɣaris n walim akken i d-ten-ttwali deg yiṭ.

Tazrawt n tmuski n uɣaras n walim d tin imrayen (iweɛṛen) s usrag n igedṛuren iteffren aṭas seg tafat, s tenmgalt n uẓabaẓ n tezrawt n talɣiwin d tsengaman n imazellawen niden yaggugen fellaɣ maca nẓerr-iten-tt seg beṛṛa, Yerna anecta yullel (iɛawn) imusnawen s waṭas deg tezrawt n izenzaren i d-ikkan seg umazellaw-nneɣ deg tɣult n uzenzar aderzeggaɣ s igensaten yakk s tmuski n isanayen deg tegnit i wakken ad anin tayyugin tiṛadyawin i d-itekken deg-s.

Akin-a, yettumeggez d akken amazellaw n uɣaras n walim ila (isɛa) wuẓ neɣ semmus (4 neɣ 5) n iɣallen anda i trennu deg-sen tneẓẓi n yitran d igedṛuren, maca tura neẓra yakk d akken (tla tesɛa) aweggir d abeṛan mači d amezzay.[4]. Yerna tegber seg 100 alamma d 300 n imelyaṛen n yitran d waṭas n ugedṛuṛ anamdal i d-ikeffun i wakken ad nnulfun s yis seg 600 alamma d umelyaṛ n yitran imaynuten. Ma d tasmekta n tenga deg umazellaw-a tettwasteg s wazal n 3,6 × 1041 kg, ma d akdy n tegra-ines azal n 100.000 n ifawatayen

Yella umazellaw n andṛumida i meqqren s wassaɣ ɣer umazellaw n wasif n igenwan anda akdu-ines yettawaṭ ɣer 150.000 n ifawatayen. Akken ig yella deg tegrawt-nneɣ tadigant ugmam wis 3 deg temɣer igan d amazellaw n ukerdis neɣ Messier 33 s unect n tejrit n Musier. Akdu-ines ila azal n 50.000 n ifawatayen neɣ ahat tazurt n umazellaw n wasif n igenwan yugar 3 n tikkal uṭṭun i d-ittunefken sɣur umusnaw n Ustṛalya Brian Gaensler d trebbut-is (tarbaɛt-is) i d-ifesren yiwet n tegmi deg usentel-a aseggas n 2008.[5][6]

Ambiwel n ugaz zdat n wammas n umazellaw d usegder n yitran sskanayen-d d akken ammas-nni ur yelli ara d amezzay maca iga d abeṛday, d amaɣɣad. Abeṛdi ayi alemmas iggar-d tiɣmert azal-is 45° yakk d uzerrig yessawaṭen seg tfukt ɣer wammas n umazellaw.

Annay n umsaddas amalun n Spitzer ittakten tafat deg tɣult n uzenzar aderzeggaɣ d akken teɣzi n uberdi-nni tettawaṭ alamma d 27.000 n ifawatayen

S ugani ɣef tmusni-nneɣ d akken tazzla n tuzzya n tfukt tettawaṭ ɣer 276 km/s, imalla udus anafuk ɣef yibdi alemmas n umazellaw d wuggug n tfukt ɣef wammas ittaǧǧa ad yili usnis n yisudaf n Kepler i wsiden n tesmekta n tenga deg wamur agensaw n umazellaw.[7] dɣa takura n tenga tummidt deg umazellaw n wasif n igenwan tga gar n 1,0 - 1,9 n imelyaṛen n tkurawin tinafukin.[8][9], ma d takura n umazellaw n andṛumida tga azal n 1.2 n imelyaṛen n tkurawin tinafukin.

IzɣuɣẒreg

Itezzi-d yiwen n izɣuɣ amezzay ɣef tegra n umazellaw, akdu n yizɣuɣ-a tettawaṭ ɣer 165.000 n ifawatayen, ittaṭṭaf-it yiwen n welmes n ugaz. Akken i llant deg-s (zdat n iguza itrawen) aṭas n yitran imziken (iqdimen) yerna d imazgayen, gar-asen wid yeṭṭafaren asesmel n RR-Lyrae d ugaz adersan n tneẓẓi akken illan daɣen yitran d izegzawen i d-innulfan d imaynuten, tikurawin-nsen meqqer-it yerna lan (sɛan) tafasa tussist. S tmerniwt ɣer wannecta tettwasteg tenga tamallast i d-ikeffun i wakken ad ttger azal n 1000 n imelyaṛen n tkurawin tinafukin, maca imusnawen ar tura ur ẓrin ara d acu i d tanga tamallast acku mazal ṭṭafarwn isemda-ines war ma ad afen akat-is neɣ ad ttwalin, s wakka ad yili yizɣuɣ d ilem deg ugedṛur maca igber kan seg kra n iguza itrawen n yitran imezgiyen yeṭṭafaren asesmel atraw II ilan tamaɣuzt drusen

Tagra (aḍebsi)Ẓreg

Amur ameqran n yitran ttumeggzen d akken-iten msegrawen (nnejmaɛen) deg tagra n umazellaw yerna asegder-is amzun d alugan. Tagra tegber s talɣa tagejdant seg yitran yeṭṭafaren asesmel 2 ilan afimidi meqqren n tmaɣuzt (imɣuzen iẓẓayen ɣef uhidṛujin d uhilium)

Iɣallen igriwlenẒreg

Amur deg Tegra ssiliɣen-t-id yiɣallen igriwlen yellan deg wudus anafuk. Tiɣalltin-a gebrent seg isigniwen meqqren d temsegrawin n uhidṛjin d tamiwin n tamiwin n H II anda i d-ttnulfun yitran d imaynuten. Ɣef wanecta illan deg yiɣallen itrawen ilulen.
Deg waddar n yitri ad yettembiwel seg wadeg anda i d-ilul w ad ttwasedger deg tagra. Maca itran icafcalen ilan takura meqqren (ugar n tkura n tfukt seg 10 ɣer 100 n tikkal) ur sen-d-ikeffu ara wakud i wembiwel deg tagra acku ttfakkan deg wadeg anda i d-lulen. Seg yitran-nni icafcalen deg tkura llan isesmilen O d B d ucafcal azeggaɣ d yitran imergaguyen, Dɣa addar n yal yiwen deg-sen ur yugar ara 100 n iseggase, itran-a ssiliɣen-d azal n 1% seg yitran n umazellaw ma d amur ameqqran deg yitran n umazellaw n wasif n igenwan gan d itran imziken imezgiyen anda yal itri ila takura yegdan agla n tfukt neɣ s ddaw-as.

Deg yunyu 2008, yiwet n tegrawt n imusnawen seg tseddawit n Wisconsin–Madison tefser-d yiwet n tegmi ɣef westag-nsen i wannayen i d-gran deg tɣult n uzenzar aderzeggaɣ s umsaddas amalun n Spitzer, tegmi ayi tesskanay-d d akken amazellaw n wasif n igenwan ila sin n yiɣallen kan. Yiwen d iɣil n imeẓli wis sin d iɣil n tseddakamt.[10]

Ismawen n iɣallen
Isem Tikwal isem-is Deg tesnallunt
Iɣil n uzadur Tindert tis 3 Ulac
Iɣil n waylanca Iɣil n Sagittarius −II
Iɣil n imeẓli Iɣil n imeẓli-zadur −I
Iɣil n umanar Iɣil adigan 0
Iɣil n wemẓiw Ulac +I
iɣil n waẓiẓ wa iggadan Iɣil uffiɣ +II
 
Asif n igenwan deg tnila n yiɣil n wemẓiw, ɣer tama tayeffust yella usignew n tseddakamt yettfeǧǧijen d tama n uhidṛujin II

«D acu-ten isemda isengamen i d-igellun s unulfu n yiɣallen deg umazellaw» asteqsi ayi d taluft ur nli (ur nesɛi) tiririt ibanen, d acu kan yettwassen d akken itran d iɣallen ur bedden ara maca ttnwiwlen (ttḥerriken) deg temsegrawin i d-izzin i wammas n umazellaw. Kra n imusnawen ttarmen (tteɛṛaden) ad ssegzun anulfu n iɣallen s teẓri n tayyugin n tneẓẓi i d-igellun s tmerniwt n tneẓẓi n yitran deg yiɣallen, s wakka ad mmagen yitran d imaynuten

Itran n tegraẒreg

Tagrawt tadigantẒreg

Ẓeṛ daɣenẒreg

ImmirenẒreg

  1. Empty citation (help)
  2. 2,0 et 2,1 Frebel, Anna; Christlieb, Norbert; Norris, John E.; Thom, Christopher; Beers, Timothy C.; Rhee, Jaehyon (2007). "Discovery of HE 1523-0901, a Strongly r-Process-enhanced Metal-poor Star with Detected Uranium". The Astrophysical Journal. 660: L117. doi:10.1086/518122.
  3. Del Peloso, E. F. (2005). "The age of the Galactic thin disk from Th/Eu nucleocosmochronology". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 440: 1153. Bibcode:2005A&A...440.1153D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053307.
  4. Aktuelle Nachrichten online - FAZ.NET Archived 2011-08-10 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Talɣa:Literatur Archived 2017-11-03 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Markus C. Schulte von Drach, : Die Milchstraße. Dicker als gedacht. sueddeutsche.de, 22. Februar 2008 – Artikel über neueste Forschungen von Bryan Gaensler und seinem Team. Archived 2008-06-19 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Hans Joachim Störig: Knaurs moderne Astronomie, Droemer Knaur, München, 1992, S. 197.
  8. MPIA Archived 2014-05-21 at the Wayback Machine
  9. Keine kleine Schwester mehr: Milchstraße zieht mit Andromeda gleich Archived 2010-08-18 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Artikel auf science.orf.at Archived 2020-03-17 at the Wayback Machine