Tafukt (itri)

Itri yudsen yakk ɣer tegnit
(Yettusmimeḍ seg Tafukt)

Tafukt neɣ iṭij (Azamul-is: ) d yiwen n yitri i d-izgan deg tlemmast n wudus anafuk, temmug amzun d tuzza (tadewṛant), tegber seg plasma iẓeɣlen yerna tesmunned (temcubbak) yakk d yiger adekran.[8]
Akdu-ines ila (yesɛa) azal n 1,392,684 km, ayen yegdan 109 n tikkal n ukdu n tegnit, ma d takura-ines 2×1030 kg, ayen yegdan 330,000 n tikkal n tkura n tegnit neɣ ayen i d-issiliɣen 99.86% n tkura n unagraw anafuk s timmad-is.[9]

Tafukt Sun symbol.svg
The Sun by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory - 20100819.jpg
Isefka n wannay
Isig n westum
ɣef tegnit
1.496× 10⁸ km
8 n tesdatin, 19 n tsinin s ufawatay
Azal amaskad (V) −26.74[1]
Azal amagdez 4.83[1]
Asesmel aylalan G2V
Tamaɣuzt Z = 0.0122
Akdu uɣmir 31.6′ – 32.7′[2]
Tiskanin timezzayin
Isig n westum ɣef
wammas n umazellaw
~2.5×1017 km
26000 ifawatayen
Tanzagt tamazallawt (2.25–2.50) iseggasen inafuken
Arured ~220 km/s (deg tmezzit ɣef wammas n umazellaw)
~ 20|km/s (Isig n tazzla s wassaɣ ɣer yitran yudsen)
~370|u=km/s (s wassaɣ ɣer wammar n tudfirt amikṛuwan)
Tiskanin tisengamin
Isig n ukdu 1.392684 km[3]
Aqqaṛ asbegsan 6.96342 km[3]
109 × tagnit[4]
Tamezza tasbegsant 4.379 km[4]
109 × tagnit[4]
Tigni 9×10−⁶
Tajumma n tiggi 6.0877 km²[4]
11990 × tagnit[4]
Ableɣ 1.412 × 10¹⁸ km³[4]
1300000 × tagnit
Takura 1.9891 × 10³⁰ kg[1]
333000 × tagnit[1]
isig n tneẓẓi 1.408 × 10³ km/m³[1][4][5]
Tineẓẓi ammas : 1.622 × 10⁵kg/m³[1]
Afutusfir adday: 2×10-⁴ kg/m³
Krumusfir adday: 5×10−⁶ kg/m³
izɣuɣ ( isig ): 1×10−¹² kg/m3[6]
Taldayt n tjumma deg uzirig n usebges 274.0 m/s²[1]
27.94 g
28 × tagnit[4]
Tazzla n teslullit
(seg tjumma)
617.7 km/s[4]
55 × tegnit[4]
Taẓɣelt Ammas ~1.57× 10⁷C[1]
Photosphere): 5778 C[1]
Kruna: ~5 × 10⁶ C
Asfijjej (Ltafukt) 3.846 × 10²⁶ wat[1]
~3.75 × 10²⁸ Lunen
~98 Lumen/wat
isig n waffa (I) wat/m−²·Stirdyan
Addar 4.57 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen[7]
Tisekna timazzayin
Annuz agellusan 7.25°[1]
(seg Ecliptic)
67.23°
(to the uswir n umazellaw)
Aluy amaɣad
seg tiglezt n ugafa
286.13°
19 h 4 min 30 s
Annuz
Seg tiglezt n ugafa
+63.87°
63° 52' s agafa
Tasnallant Tanzagt n tuzzya
(deg usebges)
25.05 wussan[1]
(deg tehri n 16° ) 25.38 wussan
25 d 9 h 7 min 12 s
(deg tzeglin) 34.4 wussan[1]
Tazzla n tuzzya
(deg usebges)
7.189× 10³km/t[4]
Isegra n Tugnakurt
Hidṛujin 73.46%
Hilium 24.85%
Uksijin 0.77%
Kaṛbun 0.29%
Uzzal 0.16%
Neyon 0.12%
Aẓut 0.09%
Silisium 0.07%
Magnisyum 0.05%
Akebri 0.04%
Cette boîte : ẓeṛ • amyan. • bed.

Tafukt d yiwet seg yitran n umazellaw n uɣaras n walim igebren seg ugar 200 n imelyaṛen n yitran[10] Dɣa amazellaw-a s iman-is yeṭṭafar tagrawt n imazellawen niden yettusemman s tagrawt tadigant anda tajumma tanamdalt i teṭṭef tegrawt-a d tuzza (tadewrant) azgen n ukdu-ines yettawaṭ ɣer 10 n imelyan n ifawatayen (iseggasen inafaten).[11]
Ma deg wayen yezzin ɣef tekrura, ad naf ahidṛujin d win id issiliɣen kṛad n ikuẓen (¾) n isegra tkura tanafukt, ma d ayen id yegran amur ameqqran d ahilium yakk d wazal n 1,69% n iferdisen iẓayanen am weksujin d usinuksid n ukaṛbun d neyon d wuzzal d iferdisen niden.[12]
Tafukt teṭṭafar taggayt n igezlanen iwraɣen s unect n usesmel atraw isennden ɣef tissiwin tiggwawin. S udday, s unect n usesmel atraw, azmul G2 yemmal-d taẓɣelt n tiggi yettawṭen ɣer 5778° C, ma d azamul V d akken tafukt d itri n welkam agejdan[13]. Dɣa imesnullanen ttmeggizent d akken-it d itri meẓẓiyen s wassaɣ, akken i ttɣilen d akken tafukt d tin yettfeǧǧijen ugar n 85% n yitran n uɣaras n walim igan deg tuget n tegnatin d igezlanen izeggaɣen. azal amagdez n tfukt d win issawaṭen ɣer 4.83, Dɣa d tafukt i d tafekka tagnnawt yettfeǧǧijen yakk s waṭas deg tegnawt n tegnit s wazal amaskad n issawṭen ɣer −26.74.[14][15]
Tamrest n tfukt tetteẓẓel s teɣlel deg tallunt, ayen i d-issiliɣen aṭu anafuk igan d tizelɣiwin tuzdimin yeẓẓlen seg yiri n uhiliusfir ɣer wazal n 100 tiggtin tisnullanin, ahilyusfur-a yessiliɣ-d tamuski tamanṭaṭ i meqqren yakk deg unagraw anafuk.[16]dɣa ammas agratraw yeččaray s waṭu anafuk.

Tafukt tettnwiwel (tettḥerrik) deg usigna agratraw adigan i d-izgan deg tama n tlilect tadigant ɣef yiri agensuy n yiɣil n umanar igan d yiwen seg yiɣallen atliwen n umazellaw n uɣaras n walim.[17]

Tafukt tezga-d deg wedras wis 4 deg wayen yezzin ɣef tkura n 50 n yitran yudsen ɣer tegnit (itran i d-izgan deg usutem n 17 n ifawatayen ɣef tegnit), anda itri yudsen yakk ɣer tegnit seld n tfukt iga d procima Centauri yaggugin (ibeɛden) s 4,2 n ifawatayen.[18]
Timezzit tamazallawt n tfukt taggug (tebɛed) ɣef wammas amazallaw s kra n 24,000 ar 26.000 n yifawatayen yerna tsemmed (tettkemmil) yiwen n useggas amazallaw (akken i d-ittbin deg yimsidag n umazallaw) azal n 225 ɣer 250 n imelyan n iseggasen.
Amussu d unwiwel n tfukt s tazzla n 370 km/t ɣer tnila n tezdemt n weyrad neɣ ɣer tezdemt n tenhawt d win i d-yettilin mya amazallaw yettnwiwel s talɣa tamazgayt yakk d wammar n tudfirt amikṛuwan s tazzla n 550 kmt.[19]
Isig n westum gar n tfukt d tegnit d win igan azal n 149.6 n imelyan km. Imusnawen ttɣilen d akken astum-a yettbeddil s unwiwel n tegnit seg uceffalu ɣer ufafuk, Tafat d tin i d-ittfakkan tikli n usutem-a deg 8 n tesdatin d 9 n tsinin, Tafasa n uzenzar anafat n tfukt d tin i d-ittaken tudert s temhalt n tugnaddast,[20], akken daɣen i d-tgellu s unezwu d tignewt, Tigelsin n tfukt d tid yettwassnen deg tegnit seg tallit n uzarmezruy anda aṭas n iɣerfan d wadlisen meggzen tafukt d yellu.[21]

Tiskanin timutaẒreg

 
Tugna s yiniten isaflawen tettwasseknew s unegjenjaṛ tesskanay-d affaw seg telmest C (tama tamellalt deg wamur azelmaṭ afellay)

Tafukt d itri yeṭṭafaren talmest n welkam agejdan G, Takura-ines tessiliɣ-d azal n 99.8632% seg tkura n wudus anafuk ma d talɣa-ines cki-tt d tuzza (meḥsub d tamduṛant) anda akdu deg tizgelt d win yemgaraden ɣef ukdu deg usebges s 10 km kan. Mya tafukt tga deg waddad n plasma anecta yennumk d akken-it tetezzi s urured deg usebges ugar n wayen i d-ttezzi deg tzeglin, dɣa tikeli ayi tettwassen s tuzzya tamgirdant, anecta igellu-d s tseddimt d unwiwel n tkura s usrag n wuẓeẓ meqqren deg teẓɣelt seg weɣyay ɣer beṛṛa. Takura ayi tettaddam kra seg yimir amussay.[22]

Tallit tufrint n tuzzya n tfukt tettaṭṭaf 25,6 n wussan deg usebges-is d 33,5 n wussan deg tzeglin-is. Ma d tallit n tuzzya tamaskadt deg usebges teṭṭafaf 28 n wussa.[23]
Asemdu n tdusi tuẓẓlammast n tuzzya ayi talwayant tga 18 n imelyan n tikkal ddaw n tdusi n teldayt tajummant deg usebges. Yerna tadusi n tndeffert n yimtiwgen d tis ur nli ara (ur nesɛi ar) asemdu meqqren, ɣef wanect-a ur ssemduyen ara ɣef tfukt.[24]

Tafat n tfuktẒreg

 
Imtiwgen igazawen icafcalen n tfukt: Yebter, Awihad, Uṛanus yakk d Niftun (ibelɣen s yimsektayen imassaɣen)

Tafat n tfukt d aɣbalu agejdan n tfasa deg tegnit ma d iɣbula niden gan d tinegwa tisinsinin deg wuln tegnit, dɣa tinegwa ayi tisinsinin gant d aɣbalu tarakaẓɣalt n tegnit i d-ittilin s tsedmirin tiɣisanin.
Timezgit tanafukt d tasmekta n tfasa i d-ttak tfukt i wfimidi n tigget n tjumma yettwafsaren srid i tafat n tfukt.[25], Timezgit tanafukt n tjumma ɣef wuggug n tigget tasnullant yegda uggug n tegnit ɣef tfukt (azal n 1368 wat/m)2[26]Tignut n tegnit d tin yettekkayen deg usifes n tafat n tfukt s wakka ad tili tfasa i d-ittawaṭen seg tfukt tudes ɣer 1000 wat/m2 deg tegnatin tigamanin neɣ mi ara ad tili tfukt deg tdeɣra n umeddu.[27]

 
Aɣelluy n tfukt seg tegnit

Asemres n tfasa tanafukt d ayen izemren ad yili s waṭas n tarrayin timguranin d tgamanin. Amedya, tamhalt n tugnaddast d tin i d-igerrun tafasa seg tfult w ad tt-iterr d tafasa takrurant. Ihi tamhelt-a d yiwet seg temhalin i d-ittilin s tarrayt tagamant deg tegnit. Akken i yezmer ad yili usemres n tafat n tfukt i wfares n tfasa tazrurant s useẓɣel usrid neɣ s turrit n tafat ɣer tzarurt (trisiti) s usemres n tekwafukin.[28]

IsegraẒreg

 
Timsengelt n yiniten d uleggen n umussu n tfukt s tamawt n STEREO.

Tafukt tegber seg uhidṛjin d uhilium. Deg tallit-a seg tudert-is sgensisen-d 74,9% d 23,8% seg tkura n tfukt deg tegnignut.[29] ma d iferdisen iẓayanen yakk ittwasemman imɣuzen sgensisen-d ddaw n 2% seg takura-ines yakk d weksujin s wazal n 1% d ukaṛbun 0,3% d Neon 0,2% d wuzzal 0,2%.[30]

Tasuddest takrurant taẓaṛant n tfukt d tin i d-immugen deg wammas agratraw, anda deg tazwara tella tegber seg 71.1% n uhidṛujin, 27.4% n uhilium d 1.5% seg yimɣuzen niden. Dɣa ahidṛujin d wamur ameqran seg uhilium yellan di tfukt ttwafarsen-d s temhalt n tseddɣisant deg 20 n tesdatin timenza n usedday, iferdisen iẓayanen llan ttwafarsen-d sɣur tisutiwin yezrin n yitran send n tlallit n tfukt sin akin nfufden deg wammas agratraw deg talliyin tineggura n tudert tatrawt yakk d inelfuyen (ineḍruyen) am supernuva.[31]

Seg wass mi i d-tennulfa tfukt, tamhelt n wezday tagejdant tegber ɣef urway n uhidṛujin yakked uhilium ɣef teɣzi n 4,6 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen yezrin, takur-a d tansa n uhilium s agensu n tfukt d tid yenbeddalen kra kra. S agensu n weɣyay, yuli ufimidi n uhilium seg 24% ɣer 60% s usrag n wefsay. Ma d kra niden n uhilium d iferdisen iẓayanen rekdrn deg tegnignut ɣer tnila n wul n tfukt s usrag n teldayt. Ma yella d ifimidiyen n yimɣuzen ur nbeddalen ara.[32]

Yettili-d usembiwel n teẓɣelt ɣer uzɣar (beṛṛa) n wul n tfukt s uzenzar deg wadeg n usseẓɣel, s wakka ur d-ittili ara usali n wefsay ɣer wezɣar s weẓɣal maca ad yeqqim deg weɣyay, Aɣyay agensaw n uhilium yebda yettmag-d kra kra yerna azday-is mači d ayen izemren ad yili acku ul n tfukt imir-a ur yeẓɣil ur yelli d aneẓẓaw s tesmekta ara ad yezdin ahilium. Ma deg tugnignut n tura yettili-d usedres deg uhilium (d yiferdisen iẓayanen) anda i d-issiliɣ 84% seg wayen yella deg tallit tamezwarut send ma ad tebdu temhelt n wezday aɣisan deg wul.[33] Deg yimal, ahilium ad ismed (ad ikemmel) asemnenni deg wul n tfukt, asemnenni ayi d tmerniwt-a ad teglu s tuffɣa n tfukt seg welkam agejdan i wakken ad tuɣal d acafcal azeggaɣ, anecta seld n 5 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen.[34]

Tasuddest takrurant n tugnignut deg tuget n tegnatin d tin yemmerwasen i wsileɣ n wudus anafuk amenzu. Akat n tyawant n iferdisen iẓayanen n tfasa tanafukt s usemres n tesledt taylalant i tugnignut n tfukt yakk d wakat n tyawant deg iseffuden ur yettwaseẓɣlen ara ula deg teẓɣelt n usefsi. Imusnawen ttɣilem d akken iseffuden ttagẓen s usileɣ n yitrazwar ɣef wanect-a ur tettwasemdu ara s usbeddi n iferdisen iẓayanen. Akken illant snat n tarrayin mtawan fell-asent deg wayen yezzin ɣef usileɣ anafuk[35]:

  • Tagrawt tasemdant n iferdisen n wuzzal ittwa-ion-in:

Deg useggas n 1970, kkrent-d waṭas n tegmayin yessezdyen ɣef tegmi ɣef isezdiyen n tegrawin n wuzzal deg tfukt.[36][37] ɣas akken tigmayin-a wwint-d igemmuden igerrzen maca aguccel n isezdiyen n kra n iferdisen n tegrawt n wuzzal (Akubalt d umegnisyum) qqimen mrayen (weɛṛen) s usrag n tmuski-nsen tanegt n tseddi, alammi d aseggas n 1978.[36] Deg useggas n 1962 tennulfa-d tegmi tummidt tamezwarut i tezrawt n tdisiwin n umcalay ɣef yiferdisen n tegrawt tasemdant n wuzzal ittwa-ion-in,[38] ttwasidnen-t deg useggas n 1976.[39] ma deg useggas n 1978 ttwasuddmen-d isezdiyen n yiferdisen n tegrawt n wuzzal ittwa-ion-in.[36]

  • Assaɣ ger n tfukt d yimtiwgen deg wayen yezzin ɣef ucellex n tkura:

Aṭas n imusnawen qellden ɣef tilin n wassaɣ deg userẓu akuran gar tsuddisin n yinyaten inafuken d yigazen inagrazen,[40] amedya amyaqqan ver n yinyaten imtiwganen d Neon d usinun deg tfukt d yimtiwgen.[41]

Aɣili d akken tafukt tla (tesɛa) yiwet n tsuddest i d-tla tugnignut tanafukt d win yersan alammi d aseggas n 1983[42] Deg useggas n 1983 yettwadma d akken yella userẓu deg tfukt s usrag n wassaɣ aseẓran gar n tsuddisin n yinyaten n yimtiwgen d wezwu anafuk i cekkṭen igazen inagrazen.[42], ma yella send n useggasa, yella yettuɣil d akken tafukt s timmad-is tla yiwet n tsuddest n tzugnut tanafukt.[43]

Tamuski d tɣessaẒreg

Iger adekranẒreg

Timezziyin tinafukinẒreg

Allus n tudert n tfuktẒreg

Anwiwel n tfukt d tmersiwt-ines deg umazellawẒreg

ImnirenẒreg

  1. 1,00 1,01 1,02 1,03 1,04 1,05 1,06 1,07 1,08 1,09 1,10 1,11 et 1,12 Williams, D. R. (2004). "Sun Fact Sheet". Nasa. Retrieved 2010-09-27.
  2. "Eclipse 99: Frequently Asked Questions". Nasa. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
  3. 3,0 et 3,1 Emilio, Marcelo; Kuhn, Jeff R.; Bush, Rock I.; Scholl, Isabelle F. (March 5, 2012), "Measuring the Solar Radius from Space during the 2003 and 2006 Mercury Transits", arXiv, retrieved March 28, 2012
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  5. Ko, M. (1999). Elert, G. (ed.). "Density of the Sun". The Physics Factbook.
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  9. Brown, M.E.; Van Dam, M.A.; Bouchez, A.H.; Le Mignant, D.; Campbell, R.D.; Chin, J.C.Y.; Conrad, A.; Hartman, S.K.; Johansson, E.M.; Lafon, R.E.; Rabinowitz, D.L. Rabinowitz; Stomski, P.J., Jr.; Summers, D.M.; Trujillo, C.A.; Wizinowich, P.L. (2006). "Satellites of the Largest Kuiper Belt Objects" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 639 (1): L43–L46. arXiv:astro-ph/0510029. Bibcode:2006ApJ...639L..43B. doi:10.1086/501524. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
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  12. Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Amado, Pedro J.; Barnes, John; Berdiñas, Zaira M.; Butler, R. Paul; Coleman, Gavin A. L.; de la Cueva, Ignacio; Dreizler, Stefan; Endl, Michael; Giesers, Benjamin; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Jenkins, James S.; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Kiraga, Marcin; Kürster, Martin; López-González, Marίa J.; Marvin, Christopher J.; Morales, Nicolás; Morin, Julien; Nelson, Richard P.; Ortiz, José L.; Ofir, Aviv; Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan; Reiners, Ansgar; Rodríguez, Eloy; Rodrίguez-López, Cristina; Sarmiento, Luis F.; Strachan, John P.; Tsapras, Yiannis; Tuomi, Mikko; Zechmeister, Mathias (25 August 2016). "A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima Centauri". Nature. 536 (7617): 437–440. arXiv:1609.03449. Bibcode:2016Natur.536..437A. doi:10.1038/nature19106. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 27558064.
  13. Dvorak R,Pilat-Lohinger E,Bois E,Schwarz R,Funk B,Beichman C,Danchi W,Eiroa C,Fridlund M,Henning T,Herbst T,Kaltenegger L,Lammer H,Léger A,Liseau R,Lunine J,Paresce F,Penny A,Quirrenbach A,Röttgering H,Selsis F,Schneider J,Stam D,Tinetti G,White G. "Dynamical habitability of planetary systems" Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. January 2010
  14. . Bibcode:1986SSRv...43..244.. doi:10.1007/BF00190626. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amdan= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  15. . Bibcode:1998A&A...333..231B. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aɣmis= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aneggar3= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar3= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  16. Fajans, J.; L. Frièdland (October 2001). "Autoresonant (nonstationary) excitation of pendulums, Plutinos, plasmas, and other nonlinear oscillators" (PDF). American Journal of Physics. 69 (10): 1096–1102. Bibcode:2001AmJPh..69.1096F. doi:10.1119/1.1389278. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2006.
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  18. . Bibcode:2004RMxAC..22...46A. Unknown parameter |azemz n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aneggar3= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aɣmis= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar3= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  19. . arXiv:astro-ph/9312056. Bibcode:1993ApJ...419....1K. doi:10.1086/173453. Unknown parameter |Aneggar6= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aneggar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aneggar7= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aneggar9= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Imaskaren= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Amezwar8= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aɣmis= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aneggar8= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aneggar5= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Amezwar9= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Amezwar6= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Amezwar5= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar7= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aneggar4= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Amezwar4= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Amezwar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasna= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneffar3= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Amezwar3= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. Empty citation (help)
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