Itri

D tifekkiwin yettfejjijen deg igenni, ttilin d iɣbula n teẓɣelt yakk d tfasa

Tamnaṭ n tlallit n yitran deg usignew ameqran n Magellan itri (Asget: itran) d tafekka tagnnawt n plasma, Meqqer, yetfejjij, yettwaṭṭef s tmentilt n teldayt, dɣa asfijjej-is ittekkes-it-id seg tfasa taɣisant i d-ittlalen deg-s, Anda ibelkimen n uhidṛujin ttenṭaṭen gugar-asen ayen i d-igellun s iferdisen iẓẓayen ugar n uhidṛujin am uhilium d ulitium d kra n iferdisen yefsusen am wuzzal, Tasedmirt-a tasengamt tettusemma s wezday aɣisan.
Itri yudsen (iqerben) yakk ɣer tegnit d tafukt, Acku d nettat i d aɣbalu n tfasa d tafat akken daɣen id tettaweṭ tfasa-ines ɣer yimtiwgen n iṭen i d-tgin udud anafuk, Kra n yetran d wid id ittbinen deg yiṭ mi ara ad iba (ad iɣab) ayen iten-itteffren am usigna neɣ tafat.
Deg umezruy, itran ssalɣen-d tigrawin yettwasemman tizedmin yakk d isurya deg igenni. Amdan amzik (aqbur) yefka ismawen i yitran ilan (yesɛan) affaw ussis akken i yefka ismawen i tzedmin d isurya, dɣa aɣref n imuhaɣ d yiwen seg iɣerfan yeggunin ɣef yitran i wakken ad as-nemlem iberdan deg wuṭan imsullsen n tneẓruft akken illan iɣerfan niden yeggunin ɣef yitran i wakken ad akzen (ad ɛeqlen) iberdan n yillan d igarawen, ɣef wanecta llan waṭas n yitran yettfejjijen lan (sɛan) ismawen s Tmaziɣt.
Imusnawen n tesnallunt sgerwen-d agbur ummid igebren ismawen n yitran ixataren amedya deg tajrit n Musier d tajurt n imazellawen d iguza imazallawen. S usnulfu n umsaddas, imesnullanen uɣalen zemren ad seked w ad snirmen itran ur nli ara (ur nesɛi ar) affaw uddis neɣ itran ur nettwaẓray ara s wallen[1].

Tama n usileɣ n yitran n usignew ameqran n Magellan.

Itri d tafekka i d-ittaken tafat s usrag n wezday aɣisan aẓeɣlaw n uhidṛujin i wfaris n uhilium deg wul n yitri ɣas ma deg kra n wamur meẓẓiyen kan seg tudert-is, s wanecta ad yebru i tfasa i keččmen ɣer wul n yitri w ad teffeɣ d izenzaren ɣer tallunt tuffiɣt. Srid mi ara ad ifakk uhidṛujin seg yitri, iferdisen yakk i d-isnulfan seg wezday aɣisan n uhidṛujin ttilin ẓẓay-it ugar n uhilium i d-yettwafarasen daɣen ama sɣur tamugri taɣisant tatrawt neɣ s tamugri taɣisant deg usupernuva mi ara ad ṭṭerṭqen itran icafcalen s waṭas. Mi ara ad yaweṭ yitrr ɣer taggara n waddar-is (leɛmeṛ-is), yezmer ad yegber kra n ufimidi n tnegwa timafsayin akken i zemren imesnallunen ad akzen takura-ines d waddar-is d tsuddest-is takrurant d waṭas n teskanin niden s wannay n unwiwel-is d umussu-ines deg tallunt d waffaw-is yakk d waylalẓer-is, dɣa d takura tuɣridt n yitri i d amakaz agejdan n temhazt-is d twenza-ines deg taggara, ma d tiskanin niden am ukdu-ines, tuzzya-ines, amussu-ines d teẓɣelt-ines ttwakzen-d s umezruy-is, anda taẓɣelt n waṭas n yitran d tin i d-ittilin d a emgal n usfijjej-is, asesmel-a d win yettusemman s umeskan n Hertzsprung–Russell yettakez-d addar d waddad anamhaz n yitri[2].

Tugna timedregt i yini n tfukt igan d itri seg telmest n G amazrar, tafukt d itri yudsen yakk ɣer tegnit

Talallit n yitri tbeddu-d am usigna i d-itteɣlayen seg tnegwa tisagnawin igebren send n kra yellan seg uhidṛujin d uhilium d kra n yiferdisen iẓayanen niden. Mi ara ad yettwaẓenẓa wul atraw imir-nni kan ad yuɣal uferdis n uhidṛujin ɣer uhilium kra kra s temhalt n wezday aɣisan yerna ad iberru i tfasa.[3], Ayen i d-igran seg wul n yitri ittaddam tafasa ɣer wuggug (lebɛid) n wul n yitri sɣur n urway n temhalin tizanzarin. Adad agensaw atraw ur t-ittaǧǧa ara ad yernu ad yeɣli ugar s ddaw n teldayt-is,mi ara ad tfakk yakk tfasa n uhidṛujin deg wul n yitri ad yennulfu yitri s tkura yugaren 0.4 n tikkal n tkura n tfukt[4] sin akin ad yettihriw alamma yuɣal d acafcal azeggaɣ, ma deg kra n tikwal yettili-d usefsi n iferdisen iẓayanen deg wul d tissi tamaggaẓt i d-izzin i wul-is w ad yemhez seg yitri ɣer talɣa yefsin.[5]

Deg wakeden-a, ul-nni yettuɣal d ayen i d-igran seg yitri ama d agezlan amellal neɣ d itri aneutronan neɣ ma meqqren s waṭas yezmer ad yuɣal d amruj aberkan

itran imisinen d yigtatrawen ttmagen-d seg sin neɣ ugar n yitran yeqqnen gugar-asen s teldayt, anda ttnwiwlen wa ɣef wayeṭ deg tmezziyin irekden. mi ara sin deg yitran-a ur tlun ara (ur seɛɛun ara) timezzit yudsen, yettili-d usemdu meqqren n tsedmirt n teldayt ɣef temhazt-is i tlallit n tmuski s teldayt meqqren am yiguza itrawen d imazellawen[6].

Amezruy n wannay n yitranẒreg

Tiggtin n wakatẒreg

Asileɣ n yitran d temhazt-isẒreg

Asesmel n yitranẒreg

Talɣa:Main:Asesmel atraw

Asedger n yitranẒreg

TiskaninẒreg

AsesmelẒreg

Taɣult n teẓɣelt tajummant
Isesmilen itrawen yemgaraden
[7]
Talmest Taẓɣelt Amedya
O 33,000 C neɣ ugar Zeta Ophiuchi
B 10,500–30,000 C Tacalgi
A 7,500–10,000 C Altair
F 6,000–7,200 C Itri waydi
G 5,500–6,000 C Tafukt
K 4,000–5,250 C Epsilon Indi
M 2,600–3,850 C Proxima Centauri

Anagraw amiran n usesmel atraw yennalfa-d seg tazwara n tsut tis 20 ass mi llan yitran ttwasisemlen s isekkilen iṛumaniyen seg A alamma d Q, Asesmel-a d win yeggunin ɣef wezlem n uhidṛujin acku deg wakud-nni imusnawen llan ur ẓrin ara d akken ayen yessemdawen ɣef tdusi n wezlem d taẓɣelt.
Tadusi n wezlem n uhidṛujin tettawaṭ ɣer yixef-is deg ugar n 9000° C, ma d adday-is iga d taẓɣelt-is isemmṭen yakk

Itran ttwabdaren-d deg isesmilen asufen s webray aseklan s unect n iylalen-is anda ibeddu s telmest O yettwassnen s teẓɣelt-is yeflalen s waṭas alamma yewweṭ ɣer telmest M yettwassnen s tesmeṭṭ-is anda icubranen-nni zemren ad mmagen deg tgnut-is. Asesmel agejdan yettas-d s unect n twadra n teẓɣelt O ,B ,A ,F ,G ,K ,M akken illant tegrawin tiylalanin drusen lant isesmilen niden, wid yettwassnen yakk d talmest L yakk d telmest T yettwasismlen d itran n ubleɣ meẓẓiyen yakk d igezlanen arasen isemmaṭen yakk.
Yal asekkul ila (yesɛa) 10 n ifurken yettusuṭṭnen seg 0 alamma d 9 n yidrasen yettwasnin s twadra n teẓɣelt maca anagraw-a n usesmel yetteɣlay yakk d tẓeɣlin yeflalin s waṭas anda yezmer ur d-ittili ara O0 d O1 deg kra n yitri.[8] S tmerniwt ɣer wannecta, itran ttwasisemlen s unect n isemda n waffaw yellan deg izelman-is iylalanen i teddun yajk d ubleɣ amalun tettakez-it-id teldayt tajummant. Tagrawt-a tedlec seg 0 (acafcal ameqran anafella) w ad tezri seg III (acafcal amagnu) ɣer V (igezlanen deg yilkamen igejdanen), Kra n imusnawen rnanVII (agezlan amellal).
Azal ameqran n yitran ṭṭafaren alkam agejdan igebren seg yitran n uhidṛujin yemmerɣen.
Tafukt d itri n welkam agejdan n telmest n ugezlan amellal s teẓɣelt-is imnummsen d ubleɣ-is amagnu

TasuddestẒreg

Talliyin n tlallit d tmekkast n yitranẒreg

TiwlafinẒreg

Ẓeṛ daɣenẒreg

ImmirenẒreg

  1. Overbye, Dennis (17 June 2015). "Astronomers Report Finding Earliest Stars That Enriched Cosmos". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  2. "2MASS J05233822-1403022". SIMBAD – Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
  3. Bahcall, John N. (June 29, 2000). "How the Sun Shines". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2006-08-30 Archived 2017-08-18 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Richmond, Michael. "Late stages of evolution for low-mass stars". Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2006-08-04. Archived 2017-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Stellar Evolution & Death". NASA Observatorium. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 2006-06-08. Archived 2016-06-18 at the Wayback Machine
  6. Boss, Alan (April 3, 2001). "Are They Planets or What?". Carnegie Institution of Washington. Archived from the original on September 28, 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-08.
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